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Dr. phil. habil. Elisabeth REBER
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There were no significant effects of talker identity on response time to judge target words.
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Author manuscript; available in PMC May 1. Michael J. Owren Georgia State University. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Copyright notice. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract This paper provides the first demonstration that the content of what a talker says is sufficient to imbue the acoustics of his voice with affective meaning. Keywords: affect, value, learning, vocalization. Results and Discussion Raw aggregated reaction times, doubly centered mean reaction times, and standard errors from the evaluative priming procedure are presented in Table 1.
Table 1 Experiment 1-Raw aggregated reaction time data and double centered reaction time data. Open in a separate window. Note: Standard errors are presented in parentheses under means. Materials and Procedure The materials and procedure for Experiment 2 were nearly identical to Experiment 1 with exceptions as indicated. Results and Discussion As in Experiment 1, we used a series of doubly centered contrasts to evaluate the reaction-time data. Table 2 Experiment 2-Raw aggregated reaction time data and double centered reaction time data. General Discussion In two experiments, we demonstrated that a human voice becomes affectively potent and acquires the capacity to influence behavior simply based on the content of the words spoken by that voice on a previous occasion.
Sound objects in English
Appendix Table 1 Words from the affective learning task in Experiment 1. Acquisition Phase Words Positive Negative Neutral cash abuse elbow ecstasy anger hairdryer engaged demon hairpin excitement destroy hydrant joke hostage kettle laughter intruder lamp lucky murderer locker profit rage paper rescue terrified street win tornado subdued. Sequential Evaluative Priming Phase Words Spoken Primes Visually Presented Targets Positive Negative bench food weeds chin birthday grease column strawberries taxes obey pizza hornet pamphlet kitten divorce reserved chocolate rattlesnake seat money mosquito statue magazine hangover table swimming garbage violin gold litter.
Table 2 Words from the affective learning task in Experiment 2. Acquisition Phase Words Positive Negative Neutral attractive awful acceptable beautiful brutal adequate brave cruel anonymous brilliant deceitful beside charming disgusting comparable delighted dumb demonstrative excellent greedy impartial friendly hostile indulgent generous pathetic moderate great repulsive near honest retarded neutral inspiring rotten noisy kind rude perpetual intelligent scum practical successful selfish quiet talented stupid reasonable terrific terrible seated triumphant ugly sedate trustworthy useless standard wise worthless wrapped.
Sequential Evaluative Priming Phase Words Spoken Primes Visually Presented Targets Positive Negative standing food weeds regular birthday grease nonchalant strawberries taxes malleable pizza hornet formal kitten divorce busy chocolate rattlesnake absolute money mosquito adjacent magazine hangover discreet swimming garbage visible gold litter.
Footnotes Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. Contrast tests of interaction hypothesis. Psychological Methods. Vocal expression of emotion: Acoustic properties of speech are associated with emotional intensity and context. Psychological Science. Acoustic correlates of talker sex and individual talker identity are present in a short vowel segment produced in running speech. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. The generality of the automatic attitude activation effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
The automatic evaluation effect: Unconditional automatic attitude activation with a pronunciation task. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.
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Vocal types and stereotypes: Joint effect of vocal attractiveness and vocal maturity on person perception. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. Praat, a system for doing phonetics by computer. Technical report C Association learning of likes and dislikes: A review of 25 years of research on human evaluative conditioning. Psychological Bulletin. Extending animal models of fear conditioning to humans.
Biological Psychology. Remaking speech. On the automatic activation of attitudes. Reverse priming: Implications for the un conditionability of automatic evaluation. The psychology of evaluation: affective processes in cognition and emotion. When fair is foul and foul is fair: Reverse priming in automatic evaluation. The affective priming effect: Automatic activation of evaluative information in memory. Cognition and Emotion. What the voice reveals: Within- and between-category stereotyping on the basis of voice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
Information conveyed by vowels. Reconsidering the evolution of nonlinguistic communication: The case of laughter.
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Personality markers in speech. Social markers in speech. Conventional, biological, and environmental factors in speech communication: A modulation theory. Verification of impression voice in relation to occupational categories. Psychological Reports.
The attractive voice: what makes it so? Support Center Support Center.